Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The mitigation analysis of unusable motor vehicles in Saudi Arabia Assignment

The mitigation analysis of unusable motor vehicles in Saudi Arabia - Assignment Example The cars, like any other machine, grow old and require repair, maintenance and eventually replacement. The well off urban population has been noted to more often than not opt for replacement of their aging cars, rather than have them repaired to elongate their working life. Like any other waste, the then retired cars pose a problem of disposal to their owners and some of them will either choose to abandon them either where they breakdown, at a mechanics compound, by the roadside or at the public parking places. Though legitimate methods of disposal exist –like selling the vehicle to scrap dealers in places like Bariman, most of the people opt for the illegal yet easy mode of disposal. What the law says. The ministry of the interior defines an abandoned property as any motor vehicle, outboard motor, vessel, ATV or trailer that is unattended which is operational or not and which is subject to removal or is removed from private or public property (PME 2012). It also defines a tow ing company as an entity or person who toes, stores or removes property which has been abandoned. The abandonment offence as defined by the presidency of the environment is the abandonment of a vehicle or any part that was part of a vehicle on any open land or any land constituting part of a highway or waterway. The offence also includes anything that has been abandoned and which was brought on land purposefully for abandonment. The law enforcement agencies will grant a towing company authorization to remove an abandoned property where: Abandoned on the right of way of any highway or on a freeway where: If in an urban area and the vehicle is left unattended for a maximum ten hours or four hours where the law enforcer feels that it poses a danger to other motorists or Away from an urban are if the vehicle abandoned for 24 hours or after 4 hours where it is perceived to pose a hazard to other motorists. If the unattended vehicle is on a bridge and obstructs the normal flow of traffic and no efforts from the owner to remove the property are evident. If the property had been reported as stolen or taken from the actual owner without their consent. Where the operator of such property has been arrested and taken to custody and has not been able to secure removal in time. Where the owner has parking/traffic violations which relate to any other local ordinance or municipal law and which are outstanding. Where the unattended property is violating any local ordinance or municipal law for which visible signs have been posted to give notice. Where the property is on territorial waters, is obstructing movement and has been there for more than ten hours or is floating loose. Where the operator of the property successfully eludes arrest for an offense which would otherwise have seen them taken into custody. The law enforcement agencies are allowed to immediately tow any vehicle or cargo that poses a hazard on any municipal highway, this includes the vehicle, the property ther ein, spilled cargo or personal property. For commercial haulers, if they are not transporting waste or cargo that is designated as hazardous, the enforcers have to grant the owner a reasonable chance to contract a towing organisation of their own. If property is abandoned on a private property, the security/property manager or the property’s lessee can have it removed without consent. They only need to contact an enforcement agent in their jurisdiction who will

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Types of Behaviors Essay Example for Free

Types of Behaviors Essay Description: In this assignment, you will apply the principles of classical and operant conditioning, as well as the notions derived from cognitive explanations of learning. You will write a paper on one of two types of behaviors that can be readily explained from a learning perspective. Using a Microsoft Word document, write a 500- to 750-word paper that explains the development of one of the following behaviors. (Be sure to specify the behavior you are discussing in your paper.) *Fear-driven reactions to insects *Cigarette smoking *Aggression For the chosen behavior, use the models of learning to explain how the behavior may develop and be maintained, so that it seems to occur automatically. Learning is the only perspective considered so do not attempt to use other explanations (i.e., the psychodynamic or biological approach) in your answer. When preparing your paper, consider the following questions: * How might classical conditioning principles apply to the origins of the behavior and maintenance of it? Clearly indicate what the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli are in your answer. * How might the principles of reinforcement discussed in operant conditioning apply to the behavior? Don’t forget that reinforcement can be either positive or negative in nature. * How do cognitive principles apply to the behavior? Specifically consider Albert Bandura`s ideas regarding imitational learning. Your paper should be well-written, original, free of grammar and spelling errors, and follow APA format.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Behavior can be defined as the sum total of all the actions and reactions performed by an individual in a given circumstance or situation in the environment.   Aggression is a behavior intended to cause harm or pain to others or the self.   It may be in the form a physical action or verbal.   The models of learning attempt to describe the manner in which an individual learns a particular behavior.   Some of the models of learning through which an individual develops aggressive behavior include classical conditioning, operant conditioning and social learning theory.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Classical conditioning was a model of learning defined by Pavlov following his studies on dogs.   Pavlov found that when dogs were shown food their salivation increased (Braslau-Schneck, S., 1998).   Food in this case was an unconditioned stimulus that produced an unconditioned response (salivation) (Braslau-Schneck, S., 1998).   He then repeatedly presented a stimulus to the dogs which was slowly associated with food (such as footsteps).   Slowly the dogs began to associate the footsteps (which after constant repetition became a conditioned stimulus) and began to produce a conditioned response (salivation). In this way several other emotions such as fear and aggression can be conditioned in an individual (Braslau-Schneck, S., 1998).   In the famous JB Watson’s experiment over little Albert, Watson initially presented a loud sound (unconditioned stimulus) that made the body frightened and cry (unconditioned response) due to fear.   He then presented two stimuli simultaneously, that is a rat and a loud sound.   Over a period of time the boy began to associate the rat with the loud sound.   The rat with repetition became a conditioned reflex producing a conditioned response (symptoms of fear). A good instance of this with relevance to aggression includes presentation of an artificial hand that snatches away the food whilst a hungry dog is eating.   The dog would exhibit an aggressive reflex (such as barking which is an unconditioned response) to the artificial hand (unconditioned stimulus).   The dog is then presented a high-frequency sound (audible only to dogs followed) by the appearance of the hand.   Following repetitions, the dog would bark (conditioned response) after it hears the high-frequency sound (conditioned stimulus), and would not wait until it is presented with the unconditioned stimulus.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Skinner’s operant theory, the individual when performing an action in the environment, experiences a stimulus (that encourages or discourages such behavior) which will directly affect the performance of such actions again in the environment.   It consists of a action and the results.   If positive reinforcement occurs following the action, the individual will perform the similar action again in the environment, and will also increase its frequency (Boeree, G. C., 1998).    However, if the action is followed by an aversive stimulus or negative reinforcement, there will be reduced chances of performing the same behavior in the future.   A good example of aversive stimuli is punishment, which can follow several aggressive acts.   Rigorous imprisonment can be pronounced for several criminal activities so that it can act as a negative reinforcement.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Albert Bandura discovered the ‘social learning theory of behavior’ (Isom, M. D., 1998).   He considered that aggressive behavior is usually learned through a process known as ‘behavior modeling’, which can occur in different ways (especially by observing elders perform in case of children) (Isom, M. D., 1998).   A child may become aggressive and certain reinforcements may be experienced such as financial gains, rewards, praises from parents, reduction in internal stress, etc.   Parents and family members were often considered as models by the children, and acts performed by them were likely to be imitated.   The child will only perform the action of its model if the model was successful or is rewarded.    A classical experiment to demonstrate the social learning theory is the famous Bobo doll experiments in which the children observed elders attacking a doll, and later imitated the action of the elders.   This type of observational learning was known as ‘modeling’.   Children who have a tendency to demonstrate aggressive behavior should be identified immediately in order to prevent aggressive behavior and criminal activity, later in life (Isom, M. D., 1998). Bandura’s theory was comparable to Skinner’s theory because observational learning (as the child would learn only the actions that were successful or were being rewarded) is similar to a positive reinforcement.   An individual is most likely to learn criminal behavior during the adolescent stage.   Children tend to follow the actions of the same sex parents (Bjorkqvist, K., 1997).   Studies have shown that children who tend to watch TV (especially those programs that show violence) are at a higher risk of demonstrating aggressive behavior later in life. References: Bjorkqvist, K. (1997). Learning aggression from Models: from a social Learning toward a Cognitive theory of Modeling. In Feshbach, S., Zagrodzka, J. (Ed), Aggression: Biological, Developmental, and Social Perspectives, New York: Plenum Press. http://www.vasa.abo.fi/svf/up/articles/Learning_Aggression_From_Models.PDF Boeree, G. C. (1998). Albert Bandura: Personality Theory. Retrieved December 26, 2006, From Shippensburg University Web site: http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html Boeree, G. C. (1998). B. F. Skinner: Personality Theory. Retrieved December 26, 2006, From Shippensburg University Web site: http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/skinner.html    Braslau-Schneck, S. (1998). An Animal Trainers Introduction to Operant and Classical Conditioning. Retrieved December 26, 2006, Stacys Wag and Train   Web site: http://www.wagntrain.com/OC/ Isom, M. D. (1998).   The Social Learning Theory. Retrieved December 26, 2006, FSU College of Criminology and Criminal Justice Web site: http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm

Monday, January 20, 2020

J.R.R. Tolkiens Lord of the Rings Essay -- J.R.R. Tolkien Lord Rings

J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings â€Å"One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the Darkness bind them† (Tolkien, The Two Towers 233)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the masters of British Literature, J.R.R. Tolkien was able to create a fantasy world with an endless supply of parallelisms to reality. The fantasy world was found in the â€Å"Lord of the Rings.† Tolkien is able to create wonderful symbolism and meaning out of what would otherwise be considered nonsense. He creates symbolism and meaning by mastering his own world and his own language. To understand the symbolism of The Ruling Ring, or The One Ring, one must understand the events, which take place from the time of the ring’s creation until the time of it’s destruction. One must also develop an understanding of the characters and events that are important in the story. In this paper, we will learn the background of Tolkien’s life and the history of the One Ring. The history of the One Ring will include it’s creation, it’s effect on mortals, and it’s destruction. By learning the One Ring’s history, one c an understand its symbolism.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, an English scholar and storyteller, became interested in language at an early age. During his schooling, Tolkien was mostly interested with the languages of Northern Europe. His interests included both ancient and modern languages. Tolkien’s interest in language leads to his profession and his own hobby. He invented languages.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The history of the One Ring starts before the â€Å"Lord of the Rings.† The ring is created in the book â€Å"The Silmarillion.† The creation of the One Ring is found in â€Å"The Silmarillion† after the fall of Morgoth. At the time, Sauron wants to control all of the people in Middle Earth. To gain control of the people, Sauron convinced them that he had good intentions. Eventually the people sided with Sauron, and created the Rings of Power. Sauron created the One Ring in secret so he would be able to control the other rings. This gave Sauron control of the people. The creation of the One Ring, and the essence of it’s power follows here. â€Å"And their power was bound up with it, to be subject wholly to it and to last only as long as it too should last. And much of the strength and will of Sauron passed into that One Ring; for the power of the Elven Rings was very great, and that which should g... ... end of time. Bibliography Adams, Robert M. The Land and Literature of England. New York: W W Norton and Company, 1983. Bloom, Harold. Modern Fantasy Writers. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1995. Grotta, Daniel. The Biography of J.R.R. Tolkien. Philadelphia: Running Press, 1978. Dodsworth, Martin. The Penguin History of Literature. England: Penguin Books, 1994. Isaacs, Neil David. Tolkien and the Critics. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1968. Isaacs, Neil David. Tolkien New Critical Perspectives. Lexington: University Press of Kentucy, 1981. Grundy, Stephan. Rhinegold. New York: Bantam, 1994. Shippey, T.A. J.R.R. Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Fellowship of the Ring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Return of the King. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Silmarillion. New York: Ballantine, 1995. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Two Towers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. Tolkien, J.R.R. Tree and Leaf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. Tyler, J.E.A. The Tolkien Companion. New York: Pan Books, 1976. J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings Essay -- J.R.R. Tolkien Lord Rings J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings â€Å"One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the Darkness bind them† (Tolkien, The Two Towers 233)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the masters of British Literature, J.R.R. Tolkien was able to create a fantasy world with an endless supply of parallelisms to reality. The fantasy world was found in the â€Å"Lord of the Rings.† Tolkien is able to create wonderful symbolism and meaning out of what would otherwise be considered nonsense. He creates symbolism and meaning by mastering his own world and his own language. To understand the symbolism of The Ruling Ring, or The One Ring, one must understand the events, which take place from the time of the ring’s creation until the time of it’s destruction. One must also develop an understanding of the characters and events that are important in the story. In this paper, we will learn the background of Tolkien’s life and the history of the One Ring. The history of the One Ring will include it’s creation, it’s effect on mortals, and it’s destruction. By learning the One Ring’s history, one c an understand its symbolism.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, an English scholar and storyteller, became interested in language at an early age. During his schooling, Tolkien was mostly interested with the languages of Northern Europe. His interests included both ancient and modern languages. Tolkien’s interest in language leads to his profession and his own hobby. He invented languages.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The history of the One Ring starts before the â€Å"Lord of the Rings.† The ring is created in the book â€Å"The Silmarillion.† The creation of the One Ring is found in â€Å"The Silmarillion† after the fall of Morgoth. At the time, Sauron wants to control all of the people in Middle Earth. To gain control of the people, Sauron convinced them that he had good intentions. Eventually the people sided with Sauron, and created the Rings of Power. Sauron created the One Ring in secret so he would be able to control the other rings. This gave Sauron control of the people. The creation of the One Ring, and the essence of it’s power follows here. â€Å"And their power was bound up with it, to be subject wholly to it and to last only as long as it too should last. And much of the strength and will of Sauron passed into that One Ring; for the power of the Elven Rings was very great, and that which should g... ... end of time. Bibliography Adams, Robert M. The Land and Literature of England. New York: W W Norton and Company, 1983. Bloom, Harold. Modern Fantasy Writers. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1995. Grotta, Daniel. The Biography of J.R.R. Tolkien. Philadelphia: Running Press, 1978. Dodsworth, Martin. The Penguin History of Literature. England: Penguin Books, 1994. Isaacs, Neil David. Tolkien and the Critics. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1968. Isaacs, Neil David. Tolkien New Critical Perspectives. Lexington: University Press of Kentucy, 1981. Grundy, Stephan. Rhinegold. New York: Bantam, 1994. Shippey, T.A. J.R.R. Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Fellowship of the Ring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Return of the King. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Silmarillion. New York: Ballantine, 1995. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Two Towers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994. Tolkien, J.R.R. Tree and Leaf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. Tyler, J.E.A. The Tolkien Companion. New York: Pan Books, 1976.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Mat540: Statistics Concepts for Research Paper

Childhood Obesity Mat540: Statistical Concepts for Research I Childhood obesity is a growing problem in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, around 12. 5 million children and teens are obese. There are many things that contribute to this epidemic like poor diet and lack of physical activities to name a few. In this paper I will figure out if there is a correlation between childhood obesity and school cafeteria food. Many people feel that school cafeteria food is partly to blame for childhood obesity. I believe this is an example of correlation and causation.Data analysts often jump to unjustified conclusions by mistaking an observed correlation for a cause-and-effect relationship. A high sample correlation coefficient does not necessarily signify a causal relation between two variables (Johnson, (2010). Though I believe schools play a particularly critical role by establishing a safe and supportive environment with policies and practices tha t support healthy behaviors. Schools also provide opportunities for students to learn about and practice healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. But they should not be blamed schools for childhood obesity.Studies regarding childhood obesity need to consider: socio-economic background, genetics, what is tough at home, and if parents are obese; before schools can be blamed. Obesity is a problem that affects Americans at an alarming rate across all age, race, and gender categories. No single group is immune to the causes, occurrences, and the recent increases in the rate of obesity. However, what may be of greatest concern for researchers is the fact that while Americans enjoys an increasingly higher standard of living; obesity among children continues to grow.Nevertheless, there is to date no cure, or even universal treatment for the problem of childhood obesity. This is partly due to an inability to precisely pinpoint the cause, or causes, of the increases. Thus, we are left with a debate over which causes play the greatest role in childhood obesity and a plethora of prevention and treatment theories. Yet at the same time, it is clear that the occurrence of childhood obesity places those afflicted at increased risk of health problems now and in the future.Overweight and poor nutrition of children in the United States are becoming issues of increasing concern for public health. Dietary patterns of U. S. children indicate that they are consuming too little fruits and vegetables and too many foods high in fat and sugar. Contributed to this pattern of food consumption is snacking, which is reported to be on the increase amongst adults and children alike. One place where snacking is under increased scrutiny, where it is being increasingly criticized, is in U. S. chools, where snack foods are often to sold to supplement inadequate budgets (Crooks, (2003). â€Å"Essentially overweight and obesity result from energy imbalance. The body needs a certain amount o f energy (calories) from food to sustain basic life functions. Body weight is maintained when calories eaten equals the number of calories the body expends, or â€Å"burns. † When more calories are consumed than burned, energy balance is tipped toward weight gain, overweight, and obesity. Genetic, environmental, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors can all lead to overweight and obesity† (Butte, (2007).Although some school cafeterias get a failing grade in nutrition, others are working hard to serve healthy meals for breakfast and lunch and to banish junk food from the premises. According to a new survey (Alliance for a Healthier Generation, 2009), most parents want schools to limit students’ access to high-calorie, low-nutrient chips, sodas, and candy and to provide more opportunities for physical activity throughout the day. I remember my days in school when lunch consisted of fries, pizza and burgers. Today schools are trying to give their students some healt hier options.However teachers cannot force children to eat healthy food and exercise on a regular basis. They can provide children with a good idea of what foods that they should and should not eat. However this information is rendered useless if parents do not follow up on it at home. Ideally parents should take the time to teach their child what they should eat so that they grow up strong and healthy. They can do this by teaching their children about good nutrition and backing it up with healthy breakfasts, lunches and dinners.Parents should lead by example as children look to their parents for tips on how they should behave. This is evidenced by the fact that most obese children have obese parents. Parents can teach their kids to lead a healthier lifestyle by educating them on the importance of good food, regular exercise and how calories work. By doing this they will be able to take charge of their weight by making educated choices on their food and exercise routines. Whether in matters of social development or physical health, parents are typically considered the primary agents of children’s socialization and well-being.Also suggested to help curb childhood obesity parents need to improve their knowledge of child nutrition and decrease television viewing (Gable and Lutz, (2000). In conclusion the childhood obesity problem cannot be placed solely in the hands of schools. Childhood obesity is a global health challenge with no single cause and no single solution. This challenge demands more than individual efforts. It demands changes in public health policies and in the built environment at the local, state, and federal levels to prevent obesity beginning in early childhood and to make treatment available to overweight and obese children and adolescents.Without a concerted, cohesive effort to reverse the obesity epidemic, today’s children will have shortened lives filled with chronic illness. After all, schools seem to be natural places in whic h to enact cost-effective interventions on children. But schools do not seem to be good at drastically changing a student’s weight, and the elimination of junk food sales in schools is unlikely to upend the child obesity epidemic. The challenge is to develop interventions that reach into the home and community.Perhaps those interventions can start with schools, but they must reach beyond them to be effective. References Butte, Nancy F. ; Christiansen, Edmund and Sorensen, Thorkild I. A. (2007)  Energy ImbalanceUnderlying the Development of Childhood Obesity,http://www. nature. com/oby/journal/v15/n12/full/oby2007364a. html Crooks, Deborah L. (2003) Trading Nutrition for Education: Nutritional Status and the Sale ofSnack Foods in an Eastern Kentucky School Medical Anthropology Quarterly, NewSeries, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun. , 2003), pp. 82-199; Blackwell Publishing on behalf of theAmerican Anthropological Association Gable, Sara; Lutz, Susan (2000) Household, Parent, and Child Co ntributions to ChildhoodObesity Family Relations, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Jul. , 2000), pp. 293-300, National Council onFamily Relations Johnson, R. A. , & Bhattacharyya, G. K. (2010). Statistics: Principles & methods. –   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sixth Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Tamsin McMahon. (2011, June 11). Out to lunch? ; Policing snacks and BMI grades are no wayfor schools to fight flab: critics. National Post,A. 6. Retrieved March 13, 2012, fromBanking Information Source. (Document ID: 2373557331).

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Absolute Vodka Defending A1.0-Executive Summary VS...

Absolute Vodka: Defending a1.0-Executive Summary VS group, a Swedish company owned by the government created VS Spirits to produce market and sell Absolut Vodka which is the companyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s strongest brand (created in 1979). To maximise the brandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s market share and strengthen its competitive position, the company established a jointed venture called Future Brands LLC to distribute its products more effectively strictly in the USA, which is Absolutà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s strongest market. Although the brand is the second largest premium vodka, its market share is threatened by the constant growth of the market leader Smirnoff. Therefore, VS Spirits need to take further measures to ensure its brandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s image and market share is protected and advanced. VSà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s†¦show more content†¦Since its launching in 1979, the brand has continued to achieve enormous success with a steady increase in sales volume and is now being sold in 12 6 markets nationwide, with North America being its top market. In the year of 2001 and in an attempt to be more aggressive in terms of increasing the brandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s market share, VS Spirits formed a joint venture with Beam Global Spirits called Future Brands LLC to distribute Absolut Vodka strictly in the USA which is by far considered the brands strongest market. Additionally, the company acquired shares in Maxxium Worldwide which became the distributor of Absolut Vodka in 60 other major markets around the world. Although Absolut Vodka retains a strong position in its market segment, the brand is faced by the constant and threatening growth of Smirnoff, its biggest competitor and the worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s market leader. Furthermore, Absolutà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s position in its biggest market, the USA has reached saturation and has low brand awareness in major markets like Eastern Europe (which is a strong consumer of vodka) compared to Smirnoff. Therefore, further analys is and action need to be taken by VS either to preserve or to increase its strongest brandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s market share 4.0-Advantage/Disadvantages of joint venture: The decision of VS to form a joint venture with Jim Beam brands and establish its own distribution company in 2001 seems to

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Profile and Biography of Socrates

The Greek philosopher Socrates was born c. 470/469 B.C., in Athens, and died in 399 B.C. To put this in the context of the other great men of his time, the sculptor Pheidias died c. 430; Sophocles and Euripides died c. 406; Pericles died in 429; Thucydides died c. 399; and the architect Ictinus completed the Parthenon in c. 438. Athens was producing the extraordinary art and monuments for which she would be remembered. Beauty, including personal, was vital. It was linked with being good. However, Socrates was ugly, according to all accounts, a fact that made him a good target for Aristophanes in his comedies. Who Was Socrates? Socrates was a great Greek philosopher, possibly the wisest sage of all time. He is famous for contributing to philosophy: Pithy sayingsThe Socratic method of discussion or dialogueSocratic irony A discussion of Greek democracy often focuses on a sadder aspect of his life: his state-mandated execution. Family Although we have many details about his death, we know little about the life of Socrates. Plato provides us the names of some of his family members: Socrates father was Sophroniscus (thought to have been a stonemason), his mother was Phaenarete, and his wife, Xanthippe (a proverbial shrew). Socrates had 3 sons, Lamprocles, Sophroniscus, and Menexenus. The oldest, Lamprocles, was about 15 at the time his father died. Death The Council of 500 [see Athenian Officials in the Time of Pericles] condemned Socrates to death for impiety for not believing in the gods of the city and for introducing new gods. He was offered an alternative to death, paying a fine, but refused it. Socrates fulfilled his sentence by drinking a cup of poison hemlock in front of friends. Socrates as Citizen of Athens Socrates is remembered chiefly as a philosopher and the teacher of Plato, but he was also a citizen of Athens, and served the military as a hoplite during the Peloponnesian War, at Potidaea (432–429), where he saved Alcibiades life in a skirmish, Delium (424), where he remained calm while most around him were in a panic, and Amphipolis (422). Socrates also participated in the Athenian democratic political organ, the Council of the 500. As a Sophist The 5th century B.C. sophists, a name based on the Greek word for wisdom, are familiar to us mostly from the writings of Aristophanes, Plato, and Xenophon, who opposed them. Sophists taught valuable skills, especially rhetoric, for a price. Although Plato shows Socrates opposing the sophists, and not charging for his instruction, Aristophanes, in his comedy Clouds, portrays Socrates as a greedy master of the sophists craft. Although Plato is considered the most reliable source on Socrates and he says Socrates was not a sophist, opinions differ on whether Socrates was essentially different from the (other) sophists. Contemporary Sources Socrates is not known to have written anything. He is best known for the dialogues of Plato, but before Plato painted his memorable portrait in his dialogues, Socrates was an object of ridicule, described as a sophist, by Aristophanes. In addition to writing about his life and teaching, Plato and Xenophon wrote about Socrates defense at his trial, in separate works both called Apology. The Socratic Method Socrates is known for the Socratic method (elenchus), Socratic irony, and the pursuit of knowledge. Socrates is famous for saying that he knows nothing and that the unexamined life is not worth living. The Socratic method involves asking a series of questions until a contradiction emerges invalidating the initial assumption. Socratic irony is the position that the inquisitor takes that he knows nothing while leading the questioning.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Western Training And Communicative Language Teaching

1. Analyses the generic structure of the article The article is discussing the Western training and Communicative language teaching and mainly it argues about the impact of these teachings on a person who belongs from other languages. The role of TESOL is important here and the opinion and views of the other language teachers have been described. The discussion made in paper is in a proper and significant manner that is holding a generic structure for understanding. On the very first the paper is giving an overall summary of discussion in form of abstract that is describing about the main theme of article that is the problems in English language. As the writer has focused on the Bangladeshi English teachers so they provided an overview†¦show more content†¦2) Summarize the main ideas Demand for competent English language users has been increasing in many countries like Bangladesh and for this purpose English language teaching (ELT) has been increasing. According to the increasing demand of competent English users and teach ers the teachers of English language are adopting communicative language teaching (CLT), the best way to learn English language skills. With respect to current knowledge, teachers lack in CLT skills. In this scenario, the encouragement of competent English language users is going through many stages in Bangladesh. These stages involve the communication barrier and the cultural difference among people belonging from the other organizations. The main and prominent objective of this paper and all of the discussion is to talk about the perception and ideology of Bangladeshi teachers. They are working to reduce and minimize the different problems associated with the teachers of other languages. The Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages(TESOL) is the association that is working on teaches of other languages and also on the teachers that have training from the Western Countries. It can be understood by the analysis of Bangladeshi population where almost 98% of the population is speaking Bengali. With the increasing demand of business market and job market, there is the great need